Low-input sourdough bread was the focus of study by the Bakery project. This bread is made by bakers or local producers using flour, water and leaven – a fermented paste composed of flour, water, bacteria and yeasts. The main idea behind the Bakery participatory research project was to understand how to sustain French baking practices and the diversity of wheats and micro-organisms used to ensure bread quality while preserving this valuable know-how.
The results revealed that among other factors, the broad diversity of bacterial and yeast species in France is notably maintained by differences in baking practices. This microbial diversity impacts bread quality in interaction with the wheat varieties used and their terroir. The French bakery sector is thus a source of biodiversity and sustains microbial genetic resources with a potential for innovation.
The Bakery project was funded by the ANR under its ALID programme, 2014-2017. The partners in this participatory research project were:
*40 artisan bakers/local producers
- Farmers’ seed network, http://www.semencespaysannes.org (FR)
- Triptolème (farmers’ seed network), https://www.triptoleme.org (FR)
*French Research Institute for Organic Farming - ITAB
*Universities, engineer training schools, research centres
- AgroCampus-ESA-INRA Joint Research Unit for Biodiversity, Agroecology and Landscape Development –BAGAP- Rennes; agronomists
- Universités de Bretagne Occidentale-Bretagne Sud-Rennes 2 Centre for Research in Psychology, Cognition and Communication -CRPCC- Brest; psychologists, sociologists
- IMT Atlantique-ONIRIS- Université de Nantes Research Centre for Process Engineering, Environment and Agrifood –GEPEA- Nantes; microbiologists
- AgroParisTech-CNRS-INRA- Université Paris 11Joint Research Unit for Quantitative Genetics and Evolution –GQE-Le Moulon- Gif sur Yvette ; bio-mathematicians and geneticists
- INRA- SupAgro Sciences for Oenology Joint Research Unit –SPO- Montpellier; microbiologists
The International Centre for Microbial Resources (CIRM) Scientific Interest Group
- CIRM-Yeasts in Jouy-en-Josas
- CIRM-Food bacteria in Rennes