Climate change and risks 4 min

Soils for food security and the climate

The "4 parts per 1000" initiative proposes to increase organic matter contents and encourage carbon sequestration in soils, through the application of appropriate farming and forestry practices.

Published on 27 November 2015 (date.last_update 13 December 2019)

illustration Soils for food security and the climate

Thanks to plants and living organisms, soils contain two to three times more carbon than the atmosphere.  Carbon-rich soil organic matter is essential: it retains the water, nitrogen and phosphorus that are indispensable to agriculture. But alternating phases of drought and intense rainfall accentuate erosive phenomena.  In the long term, almost 30 million hectares of arable land could be lost every ten years.

The solution: carbon storage

Soil degradation threatens 40% of land

If the carbon stocks in the top 40 centimetres of soil could be increased by 4 per 1000 each year, this could theoretically help to stop the current rise in the quantity of CO2 in the atmosphere, on condition that deforestation is halted.

The methods: 5 ways to develop soil management and agroecology


  • Avoid leaving the soil bare in order to limit carbon losses
  • Restore degraded crops, grasslands and forests
  • Plant trees and legumes which fix atmospheric nitrogen in the soil
  • Feed the soil with manure and composts
  • Conserve and collect water at the feet of plants to favour plant growth

Applied to the surface horizon of the world's soils, or a stock of around 860 billion tonnes of carbon, the 4‰ target would result in the annual storage of 3.4 billion tonnes of soil carbon, thus counterbalancing the rise in atmospheric CO2. This measure would be extended beyond agricultural soils to most soils and their uses, including forests.

570 million farms in the world and more than 3 billion people living in rural areas could implement these practices.

The cost

For crops, 20 to 40 USD per tonne of CO2. For grasslands and forests, 50 or 80 USD per tonne of CO2.
Carbon would continue to accumulate in soils for twenty to thirty years after the introduction of good practices, if they are sustained.

Learn more

Climate change and risks

Storing 4 per 1000 carbon in soils: the potential in France

On 13 June 2019, INRAE delivered a study commissioned by the French Agency for Ecological Transition (ADEME) and the Ministry of Agriculture concerning the carbon storage potential of soils in France. Using a novel methodology, the study was able to evaluate this potential by estimating the implementation cost, region by region, in terms of a 4 ‰ goal. The 4 per 1000 Initiative for Food Security and Climate was launched during the UN Climate Change Conference held in Paris in 2015.

01 December 2019

Climate change and risks

Two publications present the results of FACCE-JPI

The Joint Programming Initiative on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change (FACCE-JPI) has published its new brochure and a flyer on soil management in the context of climate change mitigation. The brochure presents the achievements and future actions of FACCE-JPI and includes several key interviews. The flyer highlights some of the research projects that are part of the 'FACCE-JPI Multi-Partner Call on Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research'. Both documents were presented at the International Conference on Agricultural GHG Emissions and Food Security organised by GRA and FACCE-JPI in Berlin (10-13 September 2018).

12 December 2019

Climate change and risks

Using environmental scenarios to determine the world’s future

AllEnvi, the French national alliance for environmental research, has produced a study on possible future environmental scenarios based on a survey of major international foresight studies. The study tackled two issues: What do the scenarios look like and how long are their timelines? While future possibilities go from one extreme to another – from “Chaos” in the trajectories to “Positive Synergies” or environmental degradation and improvement – soil and water appear to face the most danger. These scenarios revealed major deficiencies with regard to seas, oceans, coastlines and forests that need to be quickly addressed.

23 January 2020